Poland Crypto Tax 2

Crypto Taxes in Poland

Crypto Taxes in PolandPolish jurisdiction may be attractive to crypto businesses looking for a friendly governmental stance towards the industry as well as relatively low corporate taxes and an extensive number of international agreements on the elimination of double taxation.

Polish taxes are administered by the Tax Administration Chamber, who’s also responsible for maintaining a register of licensed crypto activities, titled the Register of Virtual Currencies. Although the authority hasn’t set any crypto-specific taxes, companies carrying out crypto related economic activities in Poland are liable for paying a number of existing taxes which are levied depending on the specifics of a particular product or service.

The tax year coincides with the calendar year, and annual tax returns must be filed by the 30th of April. There’s no requirement for the filing of tax declarations throughout the year.

Standard tax rates:

  • Corporate Income Tax (CIT) – 19%
  • Value Added Tax (VAT) – 23%
  • Withholding Tax (WHT) – 19%-20%
  • Social Security Contributions (SSC) – 20.08%

Currently, the Tax on Civil Law Transactions isn’t levied on cryptocurrency transactions.

Poland has over 90 international agreements on the elimination of double taxation, which will allow you to avail of the preferential tax rate or tax exemption. To do so, you must supply a certificate of residence proving the location of the taxpayer’s seat for tax purposes.

Corporate Income Tax

Polish tax resident crypto companies are subject to paying the Corporate Income Tax on their worldwide income, while non-resident companies are taxed only on the income sourced in Poland. If your company’s registered office or place of management is located in Poland, it’s considered a resident.

At the end of the tax year, crypto companies, like any other company, must submit annual income tax declarations to the e-Tax Office. They should include the income earned in that tax year from the transfer of virtual currencies and calculate the income tax due. Furthermore, the tax statement must reflect the revenue earning costs, including when the taxpayer didn’t earn any revenues from the transfer of virtual currencies.

According to the Corporate Income Tax Act, revenues from the exchange of virtual currencies for fiat money, products, services or property rights other than virtual currencies, or from the payment of other liabilities with virtual currencies, shall be considered revenues from capital gains. To reiterate, the value of virtual currencies obtained in exchange for other virtual currencies shouldn’t be considered revenue.

Income from the transfer of virtual currencies is taxable at a rate of 19%. Income from the transfer of virtual currencies is the difference gained in a given tax year between the total revenues earned from the transfer of virtual currencies and the revenue earning costs. Expenses incurred in relation to the exchange of virtual currency for another virtual currency won’t be considered as revenue earning costs.

Value Added Tax

It’s legally required for your crypto company to apply for VAT registration prior to starting your economic activities in Poland, and it normally takes a month to obtain a VAT number. Then, VAT reporting is submitted monthly, but companies can select quarterly reporting when registering for VAT.

Since Polish legislation is aligned with EU law, it follows the rule by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) stating the provision of services involving the exchange of cryptocurrencies for fiat money and vice versa is VAT exempt. Other crypto products and services supplied in Poland might be subject to VAT.

Social Security Contributions

If your crypto company is envisaging employment of people, you must take Social Security Contributions into account regardless of the specifics of your crypto activities. It’s part of the payroll tax and is administered by the Social Security Institution. The contributions are collected to cover such categories as pension, disability and sickness benefits, maternity leave and insurance for injuries at work. The payments are made monthly by employers and employees.

Employers are required to pay the following contributions:

  • Pension – 9,76%
  • Disability – 6,50%
  • Accidents and injuries at work – 0,67%-3,33% (the rate depends on the type of the conducted professional activity, classified by the Polish authorities)

Withholding Tax

Dividends paid out by Polish tax residents are subject to the Withholding Tax, which is withheld and forwarded to the tax authority by the payer of dividends. In most of the cases the standard rate of 19% is applicable, although it can vary due to the international agreements on the elimination of double taxation.

Interest is normally levied at the rate of 20% in Poland, unless otherwise stated in the international agreements on the elimination of double taxation.

Interest is exempt from the Withholding Tax if it’s paid out by a company with its registered office in Poland to a company with its registered office in an EU or EEA country other than Poland or in Switzerland and if one of the following conditions is met:

  • The company paying out the interest holds at least 25% of the shares in the capital of the company collecting the interest
  • The company collecting the interest holds at least 25% of the shares in the capital of the company paying out the interest
  • The company subject to taxation on its total income in an EU or EEA country holds at least 25% of the shares in the capital of the company paying out the interest and in the capital of the company collecting the interest and at least 25% of the shares have been held directly and continuously for at least 2 years

Tax Credits and Incentives

If foreign income sourced by resident companies isn’t protected from double taxation by the international agreements on the elimination of double taxation, the Polish tax authorities implement tax credit procedures where resident companies remain subject to paying Polish taxes, but they are proportionally reduced based on the taxes paid abroad.

Crypto companies of any size operating in Poland might be eligible for applying for the tax relief for research, development and innovation (R&D). The relief allows for a remarkable deduction of 200% of the costs as the costs are first 100% deducted as operating costs, and then they are 100% deducted from revenue.

The following costs are deductible:

  • Employee’s salaries, including Social Security Contributions
  • Purchase of materials required to conduct the research and development activity
  • Payments for expert opinions and advisory services, including scientific research results
  • Payments for scientific and research equipment, including service fees
  • Patent fees, protection rights for a utility model, rights from registration of an industrial design
  • Amortisation made in the tax year on fixed assets and intangible assets used in the conducted R&D activity
  • Costs of purchasing specialist equipment in the conducted R&D activity

Lastly, before making a decision on the most suitable legislation for your crypto company, you might want to learn about the Polish Investment Zone which is an incentive instrument for entrepreneurs in the form of a tax exemption for new investments, designed to grant tax reliefs (namely, Corporate Income Tax exemption) to companies of various sizes if they commit to complete their investments within 10-15 years.

The amount of the incentive is dependent on the following criteria:

  • Value of incurred eligible costs of the investment (investment capital or two-year labour costs of new employees)
  • State aid intensity in a chosen region
  • Size of the company

If you’re determined to succeed in Poland but aren’t sure where to start, highly qualified and experienced consultants of Regulated United Europe (RUE) will be pleased to assist you in structuring your taxes, familiarise you with all cryptocurrency regulations in Poland. We very well understand and closely monitor crypto-specific Polish taxation rules and strive to ensure that our clients not only comply with local regulations but also operate in a tax efficient way. Moreover, we’re more than happy to help you with the company formation, obtaining a crypto license in Poland and accounting. Book a personalised consultation now.

Crypto Taxes in Poland in 2023

For 2023, Polish authorities have set more favourable tax rates for private and legal persons which is another reason to view Poland as a country, where crypto-related economic activities can bring more rewards and returns.

Furthermore, since Poland is a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), more changes related specifically to cryptocurrency businesses await in due course. The OECD has recently introduced a new international tax transparency framework, entitled Crypto-Asset Reporting Framework (CARF), the policies of which should eventually be transposed into Polish legislation. In a nutshell, the aim of the framework is to automate tax reporting and facilitate international sharing of the relevant data which will raise crypto taxation standards by keeping tax authorities across the member countries well-informed.

Corporate Income Tax

The Corporate Income Tax remains at 19% but in 2023 some important changes will be implemented as amendments to the Polish Corporate Income Tax Act will come into effect. To start with, the implementation of the minimum income tax has been suspended until the end of the year and the profitability ratio that will make a company liable for the minimum income tax has now been increased from 1% to 2%.

When it comes to the capital gains exemption, it will be applicable even if the sold company owns at least 5% of the shares in another company and when the subsidiary benefits from an exemption on income from activity conducted in a Special Economic Zone or within a Polish Investment Zone.

Another relaxation of rules pertains to the transactions with entities in tax havens. The documentation thresholds for transactions carried out directly with tax haven companies have been increased to 2,5 mill. PLN (approx. 532,000 EUR) for financial transactions and 500,000 PLN (approx. 106,500 EUR) for non-financial transactions. There are more amendments to the Polish Corporate Income Tax Act which we would be pleased to consult you on during a face-to-face meeting which you’re welcome to schedule now.

Value-Added Tax (VAT)

The standard VAT rate remains at 23% and cryptocurrency transactions will remain VAT-exempt. However, there are other relevant changes that will impact local businesses. As of January 2023, Polish companies will be allowed to create VAT groups where each group will be treated as a single taxable person for Polish VAT purposes. It’s an optional step but can have such advantages as intra-group transactions being disregarded (although they still must be recorded). To be eligible for a VAT group in Poland, companies should prove existing financial, economic, and organisational bonds.

Key allowances and conditions for VAT groups:

  • The minimum period of a VAT group’s existence is three years
  • Permanent establishments and branches can join such groups
  • An application must be filled out in order to initiate a group formation (once it’s approved, a group VAT number is granted to the group members)
  • Each VAT group member is jointly and individually liable for VAT debts and penalties imposed on the entire group
  • All members of a VAT group are obligated to submit one consolidated VAT return, and it’s not permitted to file separate individual VAT returns for each entity

Withholding Tax

The rates of the Withholding Tax remain between 19% and 20% but 2023 will bring inherent changes as the regulations of the pay and refund system have become more straightforward. First of all, the amendment of the Polish Corporate Income Tax Act considerably extends the deadlines for filing applications for reduced tax rates. The new rules will allow for exemptions or reduced rates for certain payments under 2 mill. PLN (approx. 425,800 EUR) which a remitter can apply for by filing a statement once in the tax year.

Social Security Contributions

As of January 2023, general partners of Joint-Stock Limited Partnerships will be subject to health insurance contributions from the commencement of their business activities, as they won’t be able to avail of the allowance for startups. Other than that, the rules for Social Security Contributions remain the same. Every month employers are obligated to pay 19,21–22.41% of the gross salary of an employee which covers pension insurance, sickness insurance, disability insurance, accident insurance, and labour fund.

How do I pay taxes on crypto in Poland in 2024?

In 2024, the issue of taxation of cryptocurrency income remains relevant for residents of Poland. Polish tax legislation is adapting to the dynamically developing world of cryptocurrencies in an effort to ensure clear regulation and fair taxation. This article will provide a detailed overview of how to pay tax on cryptocurrency income in Poland, based on the rules and regulations in force as of 2024.

Basics of cryptocurrency taxation in Poland

In Poland, income from cryptocurrency transactions is subject to general tax regulation. The main taxes that can be applied to cryptocurrency income are personal income tax (PIT) and corporate income tax (CIT), depending on how the cryptocurrency activity is carried out.

Personal income tax (PIT)

For individuals, the tax rate on cryptocurrency gains is 19% of profits. This is a flat rate applied to the difference between the income from the sale and the costs of acquiring cryptocurrency. It is important to keep detailed records of all transactions in order to correctly calculate the tax base.

Corporate income tax (CIT)

For companies dealing with cryptocurrency as part of their business activities, income is subject to corporate income tax. The CIT rate in Poland varies, but the basic rate is 19%. Companies must include income and expenses from cryptocurrency transactions in their tax return.

Registration and declaration of income

Taxpayers are required to record their cryptocurrency income on their annual tax return. Individuals use the PIT form and companies use the CIT form. All transactions must be documented and supported by appropriate proof of purchase and sale.

Deductions and benefits

Polish tax legislation provides for the possibility of deductions, including expenses related to the acquisition of cryptocurrency. However, in order to utilise deductions, it is necessary to accurately document all expenses and prove their connection to the receipt of income.

Conclusion

Taxation of cryptocurrency income in Poland requires careful record keeping and documentation of all transactions. With a 19% capital gains tax rate for individuals and similar rates for legal entities, it is important to stay on top of current tax rules and obligations. Proper planning and consultation with tax professionals can help minimise your tax burden and avoid potential penalties for tax non-compliance. With a considered approach and appropriate preparation, taxpayers can effectively manage their liabilities and maximise the benefits of their cryptocurrency investments.

 

Table with the main tax rates in Poland for 2024. This table includes information on personal income tax (PIT), corporate income tax (CIT), value added tax (VAT) and other current tax rates.

Type of tax Bid Commentary
Personal income tax (PIT) Progressive rate: 17% and 32% For most income; special rates may apply to certain types of income.
Corporate income tax (CIT) 19% Standard rate for most companies; there are preferential rates for small businesses.
Value added tax (VAT) Standard rate 23%, reduced rates 8% and 5% Certain goods and services may qualify for reduced rates.
Civil law transaction tax (PCC) It varies Depends on the type of transaction; for example, property or car sales.
Tax on income from cryptocurrencies 19% Fixed rate for capital gains from cryptocurrency trading.

This table gives a general overview of the tax system in Poland. It is important to note that tax laws may change and there may be specific conditions or deductions applicable to your situation.

 

Also, lawyers from Regulated United Europe provide legal support for crypto projects and help with adaptation to MICA regulations.



RUE customer support team

Milana
Milana

“Hi, if you are looking to start your project, or you still have some concerns, you can definitely reach out to me for comprehensive assistance. Contact me and let’s start your business venture.”

Sheyla

“Hello, I’m Sheyla, ready to help with your business ventures in Europe and beyond. Whether in international markets or exploring opportunities abroad, I offer guidance and support. Feel free to contact me!”

Sheyla
Diana
Diana

“Hello, my name is Diana and I specialise in assisting clients in many questions. Contact me and I will be able to provide you efficient support in your request.”

Polina

“Hello, my name is Polina. I will be happy to provide you with the necessary information to launch your project in the chosen jurisdiction – contact me for more information!”

Polina

CONTACT US

At the moment, the main services of our company are legal and compliance solutions for FinTech projects. Our offices are located in Vilnius, Prague, and Warsaw. The legal team can assist with legal analysis, project structuring, and legal regulation.

Company in Lithuania UAB

Registration number: 304377400
Anno: 30.08.2016
Phone: +370 661 75988
Email: [email protected]
Address: Lvovo g. 25 – 702, 7th floor, Vilnius,
09320, Lithuania

Company in Poland Sp. z o.o

Registration number: 38421992700000
Anno: 28.08.2019
Phone: +48 50 633 5087
Email: [email protected]
Address: Twarda 18, 15th floor, Warsaw, 00-824, Poland

Regulated United Europe OÜ

Registration number: 14153440–
Anno: 16.11.2016
Phone: +372 56 966 260
Email:  [email protected]
Address: Laeva 2, Tallinn, 10111, Estonia

Company in Czech Republic s.r.o.

Registration number: 08620563
Anno: 21.10.2019
Phone: +420 775 524 175
Email:  [email protected]
Address: Na Perštýně 342/1, Staré Město, 110 00 Prague

Please leave your request